There is no evidence, either medical or religious, that female circumcision is necessary for Muslims.
Contrary to what is being claimed, female circumcision isn’t required under Islam.
Researchers say governments in affected countries need to do more to change the social attitudes that favour FGM and child marriage.
Health Minister Dzulkefly Ahmad says for the time being, the ban only involves tobacco products.
Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail says Putrajaya 'should do something about it' if the practice is not beneficial.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), a practice involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, can cause hemorrhage, shock, complications in childbirth, fistula or death.
Tiada kain putih, jampi serapah, doa yang meleret-leret, mandian air limau, atau bayi yang berkeadaan pedih dan dibiarkan menangis.
Debate on the subject has long been taboo, even as a group of Bohra women subjected to FGM as girls called for the government to ban the ritual, called khatna.
Despite the pain it causes and growing opposition inside and outside Indonesia, residents of Gorontalo, mostly poor rice farmers, consider female circumcision an obligation.
By looking at the practice in the context of a new discipline called cultural evolution, Howard and Gibson suggest that cutting confers advantages "that may outweigh its costs to physical and psychological health.
Those convicted of carrying out female circumcision can now be jailed for between five and seven years, from three months and two years under the former law.
Although FGM is frowned on in other parts of the Muslim world, Islamic authorities in Malaysia have in the past recommended the practice.
Amalan khatan yang berleluasa di kalangan orang Melayu Islam di negara ini bercanggah dengan pendirian ulama tersohor dunia, termasuk Dr Yusuf al-Qaradawi.
Here are some Asian countries affected by FGM.
The new law stipulates jail sentences of between five and seven years for doctors who perform the operation and one to three for parents who order it.
Di Mesir dan Sudan, kedua-dua penganut Islam dan Kristian mengamalkan FGM, tetapi amalan itu sesuatu yang jarang berlaku di dunia Arab.